Lace History (3)
The precise timing of the transition to bobbin lace is not known. However, there is much evidence to support the claim that it was known in Venice and in Flanders by the period around 1520. Portraits show it being worn, often as part of an embroidered item or as surface ornamentation. Household accounts, merchant lists and estate listings from this period begin to show common reference to bobbin lace by one name or another. Santina Levey, in the introduction to the 1559 edition of Le Pompe, a reproduction of one of the earliest known pattern books for bobbin lace, states that bobbin lace almost certainly preceded the development of needle lace.She states that the prevalence of openwork, which gave rise to it, didn't gain impetus until later in the century. And indeed, it isn't until the period around the 1550's that portraits begin to show bobbin lace being used in conjunction with Reticella and Punto in Aria, an association which continued for several decades. One thing that surprises many who study the fashions of the Renaissance is the rapidity with which tastes and trends in fashion disseminated. This is particularly the case with the desire for lace. However, when it is also observed that this period was one in which literacy became widespread and books became much more available, the surprise is not so great. Venice and Antwerp were great centers of printing, and it was there that the pattern books of Pagano (the first to still address embroidery patterns yet include great amounts of open work) and the others were published. Kraatz and Levey both attribute the early, almost explosive success of lace in fashion to the wide distribution of these books. Italy (particularly Venice), Flanders and eventually France were to remain the pre-eminent centers of lacemaking through out most of the history of the handmade lace era. The whims of fashion seemed to dictate that at any given time, one or the other of these was favored over the rest, but those out of favor needed only to wait a while and their product would come back into favor. By the middle of the 16th century, lacemaking had spread throughout Europe and the British Isles. The case of English lacemaking is interesting. Neither Kraatz nor Levey has anything particularly kind to say about it. Historians have not, in general, believed that it was a major player, or that English lace was particularly well-regarded. However, this may not be an entirely accurate picture of the reality during the great era of lace in fashion. A relatively recent scholarly work by H.J. Yallop explores the history of lacemaking in England, focusing on that produced in Honiton. Yallop presents considerable documentary evidence for concluding that in its time, Honiton and other English laces were quite well regarded both at home and on the continent, and a brisk trade was extant.
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[From: 来自网络] [Author: 不详] [Date: 10-12-15] [Hits: ]