Lace history (2)
Lace designs remained rather geometric well into the 1600's. Indeed, as Kraatz notes in her book, it was not always easy for the observer to tell the difference between Reticella and the earliest Punto in Aria. Designs for lace were widely distributed in books written by such authors as Vinciollo, Cesare Vecellio, Johann Siebmacher, Bernhart Jobin, and two women, Isabeta Catenea Parasole, and Lucretia Romana. The books were usually dedicated to well-born ladies. It has been argued that lack of specific instructions for the work shown in the pattern books, indicates that they were intended for use by professional needle workers. However, it is quite possible that these ladies did do some needle lace. Such women were known to be very proficient with their needles as any 'virtuous woman' of the time was expected to be. Further, it was the custom for at least part of the textiles and ornamental items needed in a great house, to be produced there, under the supervision of the Mistress of the House. Until the need for great quantities greatly outstripped the possibility of producing the required yardages in the household workshops, the work was well within their abilities. We know from records that white embroidery and needle lace was also made in convents, hospitals, houses for the indigent, and other institutions, as well as by seamstresses and persons working in the linen draper's trade. The basis for the future use of religious houses, charitable institutions and members of the lower classes as the producers of lace had already been laid. The origins of bobbin lace are less readily apparent in the pictorial and remaining artifact record. Both Italy (Venice) and Belgium (Flanders) claim to be the birthplace of bobbin lace. Both have some fairly convincing evidence to support their claims and no firm and irrefutable conclusion has been reached by textile historians. One additonal theory that has equally convincing evidence is that it evolved independently in both regions at about the same time. If so, it is unlikely we will ever know which got there first. In any case, eventually, Flanders became pre-eminent in the field of Bobbin Lace. Many factors contributed to the ability of Flanders to become pre-eminent in bobbin lace production: • Flanders had an immediate source of fine linen thread at hand. Flax was a major crop, the quality of the local flax was unsurpassed, and the thread was spun in the region. • The region was a major center for development of the arts. • There was a ready and plentiful source of cheap labor in the local poorhouses, beguinages, convents and among cottagers who needed a way to earn a living. • The trade infrastructure for marketing the product was in place, much as it was for Venetian artifacts. While textile historians cannot agree upon the exact antecedants of bobbin lace, it is possible to see that there are several techniques which could easily have contributed to its development. One of the most universally accepted ones is that of making Passaments. These were ornamental braids, ribbons and galoons of silk, precious metal thread and other precious materials that were used to ornament fabrics for a variety of uses. They were common applications to garments of the Renaissance, as may be seen in portraits of the period. Passamenterie was woven by members of the Corporation of Passamentiers on special looms or on long cushions. Pins were used to keep the newly worked threads in place as the work progressed below them. The precious threads were kept from tangling and knotting by winding them on weights which were made of lead, bone or wood. It doesn't require a great leap of imagination to see how these evolved to become the lace maker's pillow and bobbins.
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Keyword: lace develop
[From: 来自网络] [Author: 不详] [Date: 10-12-15] [Hits: ]